STUDIES AVAILABLE OF HARITAKI
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Department of Animal Sciences, School of Life Sciences, University of Hyderabad, Hyderabad 500046, India.
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Terminalia chebula has an esteemed origin in Indian mythology; its fruits are used to treat many diseases such as digestive, diabetes, colic pain, chronic cough, sore throat, asthma, etc. AIM OF THE STUDY: The water or ethanolic extracts of the fruits were reported to have anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-cancer and radio-protector properties. The present study is to isolate and identify the compounds that inhibit COX and 5-LOX, the key enzymes involved in inflammation and carcinogenesis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The ethanolic extract of the fruits was fractionated by RP-HPLC and fractions were tested for enzyme inhibition activity against COX and 5-LOX. One of the fractionated compounds showed potent dual inhibition against COX and 5-LOX. It was identified as chebulagic acid by LC-MS, NMR and IR analyses. The chebulagic acid was also tested for anti-proliferative activity. RESULTS: Chebulagic acid showed potent COX-LOX dual inhibition activity with IC(50) values of 15+/-0.288, 0.92+/-0.011 and 2.1+/-0.057muM for COX-1, COX-2 and 5-LOX respectively. It also showed anti-proliferative activity against HCT-15, COLO-205, MDA-MB-231, DU-145 and K562 cell lines. Further mechanistic studies on COLO-205 cells revealed induction of apoptosis by chebulagic acid. CONCLUSIONS: Chebulagic acid, a COX-2 and 5-LOX dual inhibitor isolated from the fruits of Terminalia chebula, induces apoptosis in COLO-205 cells.
PMID: 19481594 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education and Research (PGIMER), Chandigarh City, India.
There is documented evidence of the use of Terminalia chebula for various ailments in the Ayurvedic literature. The extract has been shown to possess glucose lowering activity and to improve insulin sensitivity in animal models of type 2 diabetes mellitus. The present study was carried out to study the dose response relationship of this extract in a rat model of metabolic syndrome. Six groups of rats were fed a high fructose diet (HFD) for a period of 20 days to induce metabolic syndrome. Three doses of fruit extract of T. chebula 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg were administered orally and pioglitazone 2.7 mg/kg was used as a positive control. Blood samples were collected at days 0, 20 and 40 from the tail vein. Systolic blood pressure (SBP) was measured using the tail cuff method and an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) was done on the day of blood collection. Administration of HFD for 20 days significantly increased fasting blood glucose (FBG), SBP and the area under the curve of OGTT. On day 40 the FBG in the 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg group was 97.33 +/- 5.82 (NS), 86.83 +/- 5.08 (p = 0.038) and 85.67 +/- 6.74 (p = 0.15), respectively. These results show that the fruit extract of T. chebula exerts a significant and dose-dependent glucose lowering effect in the rat model of metabolic syndrome. Copyright (c) 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
PMID: 19475706 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Department of Pharmaceutics, Research Center of Pharmaceutics, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran.
Synopsis This study aimed to evaluate the free radical scavenging and inhibition properties of five medicinal plants, including Quercus infectoria Olive., Terminalia chebula Retz., Lavendula stoechas L., Mentha longifolia L., Rheum palmatum L., toward the activity of mushroom tyrosinase using l-tyrosine and l-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (l-DOPA) as the substrate. The methanol extracts of Q. infectoria and T. chebula showed strong radical scavenging effect in 2,2'-dipheny l-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay (IC(50) = 15.3 and 82.2 mug mL(-1) respectively). These plants also showed inhibitory effects against the activity of mushroom tyrosinase in hydroxylation of l-tyrosine (85.9% and 82.2% inhibition, respectively). These two plants also inhibited the oxidation of l-DOPA similar to kojic acid as positive control (IC(50) = 102.8 and 192.6 mug mL(-1) respectively). In general Q. infectoria and T. chebula significantly inhibited tyrosinase activity and DPPH radical. Both activities were concentration-dependant but not in linear manner. It is needed to study the cytotoxicity of these plant extracts in pigment cell culture before further evaluation and moving to in vivo conditions.
PMID: 19467035 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Microbial & Molecular Genetics Lab, Dept. of Botany, Patna Univ., Patna 800 005, India.
Triphala, a mixture of Emblica officinalis, Terminalia chebula, and Terminalia bellirica, containing ingredients from plant origin, is often prone to microbial contamination. A high level of microbial contamination was observed in Triphala samples obtained from different sources. On gamma radiation processing, a sharp decline in log CFU was observed with increasing radiation dose and a complete decontamination at 5 kGy. Average D10 value for total aerobic and fungal counts were observed to be 0.55 +/- 0.073 kGy and 0.94 +/- 0.043 kGy, respectively. Water extracts of irradiated samples showed linearly increasing concentration of gallic acid (3.3 to 4.5 times), total phenolic contents (2.16 to 2.87 times), and antioxidant properties with increasing radiation dose up to 25 kGy. The increase could be attributed to easy release of active ingredients from their radiation degraded complex forms. Aflatoxin B(1) and ochratoxin could not be detected in the samples. Gamma-radiation dose up to 5 kGy could be safely used to hygienize Triphala.
PMID: 19397725 [PubMed - in process]
Department of Pharmaceutical Science, Faculty of Pharmacy, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200, Thailand.
Ethanolic extracts of 30 Thai medicinal plants, traditionally used as alternative treatments in diabetes, were evaluated for antioxidative activity by the 2,2'-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) diammonium salt (ABTS) method. They were evaluated in vitro for oxidative stress by thiobarbituric acid-reactive substance (TBARS) assay in pooled plasma of diabetic patients compared to without treatment of the extracts (control). The extracts were also assayed for protein glycation. The results showed that five plants had strong antioxidant activity: Phyllanthus emblica Linn. (PE), Terminalia chebula Retz. (TC), Morinda citrifolia Linn. (MC), Kaempferia parviflora Wall. (KP) and Houttuynia cordata Thunb.(HC), respectively. Thirty plant extracts were good correlation between total antioxidant activity and antiradical activity by TBARS as well as by glycation (r = 0.856, p<0.01 and r = 0.810, p<0.01). PE had stronger antioxidative activity as well as inhibition of TBARS and glycation than the other plants. The investigation showed that total polyphenol and tannin content of PE and the flavonoid content of HC were the highest. The results imply that these plants are potential sources of natural antioxidants which have free radical scavenging activity and might be used for reducing oxidative stress in diabetes.
PMID: 19275712 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Department of Pharmacology, L. M. College of Pharmacy, Gujarat University, Ahmedabad, India.
Triphala is categorized as a rejuvenator and antioxidant-rich Ayurvedic herbal formulation and has traditionally been used in various gastric problems including intestinal inflammation. The aim of the present study was to examine the comparative enteroprotective effect of Triphala formulations against methotrexate-induced intestinal damage in rats. Triphala formulations were prepared by mixing equal (1:1:1) and unequal (1:2:4) proportions of Terminalia chebula Retz., Terminalia belerica (Gaertn.) Roxb. and Emblica officinalis Gaertn. Intestinal damage was induced by administering methotrexate (MTX) in a dose of 12 mg/kg, orally for 4 days to albino rats. The intestinal damage response was assessed by gross and microscopical injury, measuring the intestinal permeability to phenol red and tissue biochemical parameters. Triphala equal and unequal formulations at the dose of 540 mg/kg significantly restored the depleted protein level in brush border membrane of intestine, phospholipid and glutathione content and decreased the myeloperoxidase and xanthine oxidase level in intestinal mucosa of methotrexate-treated rats. In addition, Triphala unequal formulation showed significant decrease in permeation clearance of phenol red with significant attenuation in the histopathological changes, level of disaccharidase in brush border membrane vesicles and lipid peroxidation content of intestinal mucosa. Based on the data generated, it is suggested that Triphala unequal formulation provides significantly more protection than Triphala equal formulation against methotrexate-induced damage in rat intestine. Copyright (c) 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
PMID: 19170156 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Department of Studies in Applied Botany and Biotechnology, University of Mysore, Manasagangotri, Mysore-570 006, Karnataka, India. email@example.com
Pestalotiopsis species were most dominant endophytic species isolated from four medicinal plants including Terminalia arjuna, Terminalia chebula, Azadirachta indica, and Holarrhena antidysenterica. Thirty Pestalotiopsis species isolated from different parts of the medicinal plants were selected for the study. The antioxidant and antihypertensive properties of Pestalotiopsis isolates were determined by measuring 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl inhibitory activity, lipid peroxidation, and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibition activity. Pestalotiopsis isolates of T. arjuna origin exhibited maximum radical scavenging activity compared with the others. The IC50 values of Pestalotiopsis extracts for 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl scavenging activity ranged from 14 to 27 microg/mL compared with 15 and 6 microg/mL for butylated hydroxytoluene and ascorbic acid, respectively. The DNA damage study was also done for three isolates, TC-315, TA-37, and TA-60; TA-37 gave 80% protection. The IC50 values of Pestalotiopsis extracts for lipid peroxidation ranged between 30 and 35.5 microg/mL, while for the positive control butylated hydroxytoluene, it was 26 microg/mL. Out of 32 fungal extracts screened for antihypertensive assay, five (TA-37, TA-60, TA-102, TA-103, and TC-320) showed >60% inhibition of angiotensin-converting enzyme. The IC50 values for five extracts ranged from 21 to 37 microg/mL and was 20 microg/mL for captopril used as a positive control. The antibacterial activity was measured by the microplate-based turbidity measurement method. Four Pestalotiopsis extracts (TA-04, TA-37, TA-60, and TA-102) showed >75% inhibition against five bacterial strains including Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas fluorescens, Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. malvacearum, and Staphylococcus aureus. The antioxidant, antibacterial, and antihypertensive activities demonstrated the potential of Pestalotiopsis extracts as therapeutic targets.
PMID: 18772940 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Field Research Laboratory, Defence Research and Development Organisation Leh-Ladakh, J&K, India. firstname.lastname@example.org
AIM OF THE STUDY: Traditional medicine of clod desert Ladakh has large potential to treat various ailments among tribal communities inhabited in the remotest region of Indian subcontinent. This study was conducted to document the new ethno-medico-botanical information and traditional use of medicinal plants against kidney and urinary disorders, and thus to conserve the rapidly disappearing traditional knowledge system of Amchis of Ladakh. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The information was collected from 105 villages of Leh and Kargil districts of Ladakh region by involving 47 Amchis (the herbalists), village heads and old aged persons including women population through on spot interview and repeated queries among other interviewees over a period of 3 years from 2004-2006. RESULTS: The use of 68 medicinal plants belonging to 29 families and 58 genera of clod desert was documented against the treatment of kidney and urinary disorders in the tribal communities of Ladakh region in India. These species were used in combination of some exotic species such as Bergenia ligulata, Cinnamomum zeylanicum, Crocus sativus, Elettaria cardamomum, Emblica officinalis, Ficus religiosa, Mangifera indica, Punica granatum, Santalum album, Spondiax axillaris, Terminalia belerica, Terminalia chebula, Zingiber officinale and some medicinal stones, minerals and salts etc. Problem in urine discharge, burning sensation and painful urination, inflammation and bleeding in the kidney, irritable condition of bladder, haemorrhage of kidney and removal of blocked urine and kidney stone were the frequently reported disorders in the study area. CONCLUSION: The effectiveness of traditional system of medicine, role of Amchis in preparation of remedies according to age, sex and severity of ailment, method of preparation, doses and its administrations among tribal communities of Ladakh provides certain new information. Though the system is extensively used among the tribal communities in the remotest regions but still it has a great scope of proper phytochemical and pharmacological validation of the medicinal plants used in different remedies for conservation and development of traditional system of medicine according to modernization.
PMID: 18550306 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Ruhuna, Galle, Sri Lanka. email@example.com
We describe a patient with depression who was well controlled with sertraline monotherapy developing two relapses of depression in close temporal relationship with starting ayurvedic herbal mixtures. We discuss the possibility of a pharmacokinetic herb-drug interaction decreasing the therapeutic efficacy of sertraline leading to the relapses of depression. We speculate the herbal plant most likely to be responsible for this interaction is either Terminalia chebula or Commiphora wighteii.
PMID: 18515463 [PubMed - in process]
College of Pharmacy, Kangwon National University, Chuncheon ,Korea.
Methanol aqueous extracts of 100 plants were screened for anti-oxidative activity using Fenton's reagent/ethyl linoleate system and for free radical scavenging activity using the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl free radical generating system. The results suggest that 14 plants - Alpinia officinarum, Areca catechu, Brassica alba, Cannabis sativa, Curcuma longa, Curcuma aromatica, Eugenia caryophyllata, Evodia officinalis, Paeonia suffruticosa, Rhaphanus sativus, Rheum palmatum, Rhus verniciflua, Trapa bispinosa, Zanthoxylum piperitum - may be potential sources of anti-oxidants. Eight plants - Citrus aurantium, Cornus officinalis, Gleditsia japonica, Lindera strychnifolia, Phragmites communis, Prunus mume, Schizandra chinensis, Terminalia chebula - may be the potential source of free radical scavengers from natural plant.
PMID: 18505484 [PubMed - in process]
Centre of Advanced Study in Botany, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi, 221005, India.
The paper explores fungal infection and aflatoxin B1 contamination of six medicinal plant samples viz. Adhatoda vasica Nees, Asparagus racemosus Linn., Evolvulus alsinoides Linn., Glycyrrhiza glabra Linn., Plumbago zeylanica Linn. and Terminalia chebula Retz. A total of 858 fungal isolates were detected from the raw materials. Maximum number of fungal isolates was detected from A. racemosus (228). The genus Aspergillus was found to be the most dominant genus causing infection to most of the raw materials. Among the 32 isolates of A. flavus tested, 13 isolates were found to be toxigenic elaborating aflatoxin B1. The highest elaboration of aflatoxin B1 was 394.95 ppb by the isolates of A. flavus from G. glabra. The essential oil of Cinnamomum camphora (L.) Presl showed efficacy in arresting aflatoxin B1 by the toxigenic strain. The growth of a toxigenic strain of A. flavus decreased progressively with increasing concentration of essential oil from leaves of C. camphora. The oil completely inhibited aflatoxin B1 production even at 750 ppm. Hence, the oil of C. camphora is recommended as herbal fungitoxicant against the fungal contamination of the raw materials.
PMID: 18322727 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Division of Applied Bioscience, Graduate School of Agriculture, Hokkaido University, Sapporo 060-8589, Japan.
Chebulagic acid, isolated form Terminalia chebula Retz, proved to be a reversible and non-competitive inhibitor of maltase with a K(i) value of 6.6 muM. The inhibitory influence of chebulagic acid on the maltase-glucoamylase complex was more potent than on the sucrase-isomaltase complex. The magnitude of alpha-glucosidase inhibition by chebulagic acid was greatly affected by its origin. These results show a use for chebulagic acid in managing type-2 diabetes.
PMID: 18256469 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Section of Chemoprevention and Nutrition Toxicology, Department of Medical Elementology and Toxicology, Jamia Hamdard (Hamdard University), Hamdard Nagar, New Delhi, India.
In an effort to identify a new chemopreventive agent, the present study was conducted to investigate the role of T. chebula in the prevention of ferric nitrilotriacetic acid (Fe- NTA) induced oxidative stress and renal tumorigenesis in Wistar rats. A single application of Fe-NTA (9 mg Fe/kg body weight, intraperitoneally) significantly induced oxidative stress and elevated the marker parameters of tumor promotion. However, the pretreatment of animals with different doses of T. chebula extract (25 and 50 mg/kg body weight) restored the levels of reduced glutathione (GSH) and cellular protective enzymes (p < 0.05). Concomitantly, malondialdehyde (MDA) formation and hydrogen peroxide content were also reduced significantly (p < 0.05) at both the doses. The promotion parameters tested (ornithine decarboxylase activity and DNA synthesis) were also significantly suppressed (p < 0.05). T. chebula also inhibited N-diethyl nitrosamine initiated renal carcinogenesis by showing reduction in the number of animals with renal cell tumors and percentage incidence of tumor as compared to the DEN initiated and Fe-NTA promoted rats. The study was further histologically confirmed. These results suggest a potential role of T. chebula in protection from Fe-NTA-induced renal carcinogenesis and oxidative damage.
PMID: 18236787 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Department of Biochemistry, Dr. B.C. Roy Post Graduate Institute of Basic Medical Sciences and IPGMERR, 244B, Acharya Jagadish Chandra Bose Road, Kolkata - 700 020, India.
The healing activity of the ethanol extracts of Piper betel, Emblica officinalis, Terminalia bellerica, and Terminalia chebula against the indomethacin-induced stomach ulceration has been studied and compared with that of misoprostol. Compared to autohealing, all the drugs accelerated the healing process, albeit to different extents. The relative healing activities of the extracts was P. betel>E. officinalis>T. bellerica~T. chebula, that correlated well with their in vivo antioxidant and mucin augmenting activities. The excellent healing activity of the extracts of P. betel and E. officinalis indicated a major role of mucin protection and regeneration in the healing of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs mediated stomach ulceration.
PMID: 18193104 [PubMed - in process] PMCID: PMC2170955
Dr. B.R. Ambedkar Center for Biomedical Research, University of Delhi, Delhi, India.
The aqueous extract of the fruits of Terminalia chebula Retz. has been evaluated for its antidiabetic activity in streptozotocin (STZ) induced mild diabetic rats and compared with a known drug, tolbutamide. The oral effective dose (ED) of the extract was observed to be 200 mg/kg body weight, which produced a fall of 55.6% (p<0.01) in the oral glucose tolerance test. Oral administration of ED of aqueous extract of T.chebula (AETC) daily once for two months reduced the elevated blood glucose by 43.2% (p<0.01) and significantly reduced the increase in glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) (p<0.01). The same dose also showed a marked improvement in controlling the elevated blood lipids as well as decreased serum insulin levels in contrast to the untreated diabetic animals. Hepatic and skeletal muscle glycogen content decreased by 75% and 62.9% respectively in diabetic controls, these alterations were partly prevented (34.9% and 21.17%) in AETC treated group when compared to the healthy controls. The in vitro studies with pancreatic islets showed that the insulin release was nearly two times more than that in untreated diabetic animals. The treatment did not have any unfavorable effect on other blood parameters of liver and kidney function tests. LD 50 was found to be above 3 g/kg bw i.e. 15 times of ED, because there were no deaths of animals even at this dose indicating high margin of safety. These findings suggest further investigations for the possible use of the aqueous extract of fruits of T.chebula for the treatment of diabetes.
PMID: 18058598 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Dhanalakshmi S, Devi RS, Srikumar R, Manikandan S, Thangaraj R.
Department of Physiology, Dr. ALM. PG. Institute of Basic Medical Sciences, University of Madras, Taramani Campus, Chennai, Tamilnadu, India.
Stress is one of the basic factors in the etiology of number of diseases. Cold-stress occurs when the surrounding temperature drops below 18 degrees C, the body may not be able to warm itself, and hence serious cold-related illnesses, permanent tissue damage and death may results. The present study was aimed to investigate the effect of Triphala (Terminalia chebula, Terminalia belerica and Emblica officinalis) against the cold stress-induced alterations in the behavioral and biochemical abnormalities in four different groups (saline control, Triphala, cold-stress and Triphala with cold-stress) of Wistar strain albino rats. In this study cold-stress (8 degrees C for 16 h/d/15 days) was applied and the oxidative stress was assessed by measuring the extent of lipid peroxidation (LPO) and the changes in corticosterone levels. Upon exposure to the cold-stress, a significant (P<0.05) increase in immobilization with decrease in rearing, grooming, and ambulation behavior was seen in open field. Following cold-exposure, significant increase in the LPO and corticosterone levels was observed. Oral administration of Triphala (1 g/kg/animal body weight) for 48 days significantly prevented these cold stress-induced behavioral and biochemical abnormalities in albino rats. The results of this study suggest that Triphala supplementation can be regarded as a protective drug against stress.
PMID: 17978562 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Division of Conservative, Dentistry and Endodontics, Rajah Muthiah Dental College and Hospital, Annamalai University, Chidambaram, Tamilnadu - 608 002, India.
Plant-derived medicines have been a part of our traditional health care system, and the antimicrobial properties of plant-derived compounds are well documented. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effect of an aqueous extract of Terminalia chebula (a medicinal plant) on salivary samples and its potential for use as an anticaries agent in the form of mouthwash. A concentrated aqueous extract was prepared from the fruit of T. chebula . A mouth rinse of 10% concentration was prepared by diluting the extract in sterile distilled water. The efficacy of the mouth rinse was assessed by testing on 50 salivary samples. Salivary samples were collected from subjects assessed to be at high risk for caries. Salivary pH, buffering capacity, and microbial activity were assessed before rinsing, immediately after, and 10 min, 30 min, and 1 h after rinsing. There was an increase in the pH and buffering capacity and decrease in microbial count. An aqueous extract of T. chebula used as a mouth rinse seems to be an effective anticaries agent.
PMID: 17938489 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Pharmacognosy and Ethnopharmacology Division, National Botanical Research Institute, Lucknow 226 001, India.
Triphala is an anti-oxidant-rich herbal formulation containing fruits of Emblica officinalis, Terminalia chebula and T. belerica in equal proportions. The preparation is frequently used in Ayurvedic medicine to treat diseases such as anaemia, jaundice, constipation, asthma, fever and chronic ulcers. Anti-mutagenic effects of the polyphenolic fractions isolated from Triphala have been reported, thus indicating that the phenols present in the formulation might be responsible for its therapeutic efficacy. A simple high-performance liquid chromatography method for the separation and quantitative determination of the major antioxidant polyphenols from Triphala has been developed. The use of an RP18 column with an acidic mobile phase enabled the efficient separation of gallic acid, tannic acid, syringic acid and epicatechin along with ascorbic acid within a 20 min analysis. Validation of the method was performed in order to demonstrate its selectivity, linearity, precision, accuracy and robustness. In addition, optimisation of the complete extraction of phenolic compounds was also studied. Copyright 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
PMID: 17879225 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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